ambition, Ark of the Covenant, benjamin, Canaan, Canaanization, carved image, Dale Ralph Davis, dan, danites, Darrel Block, David, Eshtaol, gershom, graven image, house of judah, household gods, Israel, judges, judges 17, judges 18, Laish, Leon Morris, Levite, luck, Matt Chandler, micah, molton image, monty python, moses, parody, Peter Gentry, prosper, prosperity gospel, right in their own eyes, superstition, syncretistic, The Explicit Gospel, Tom Schreiner, tribe of dan, Yahweh, Zorah
Last night at our weekly Bible study I taught on Judges 17 and 18. This has to have been the oddest series of chapters I’ve ever taught on! Yet, there are also profound lessons to be learned. Below are my notes – they are pretty rough-draft, not polished etc. But they point to a few of the major lessons I learned from my study of these chapters. I think its fair to say that this story (of Micah and the Danites) is very odd – but also rather funny. There are satirical nuances laced throughout each chapter, and I hope you enjoy them as much as I did!
Chapter 17 (Introduction)
As we enter our study on chapter 17, we’re beginning to examine the final section of this book of the Bible (there are three major sections). Chapters 17-21 are sometimes called “appendices” of the book because they add further context to the situation in Israel in the form of two additional stories.
Each of these stories is low on commentary by the narrator, but the writing style is extremely subtle, and sophistication marks the compilation of each composition.
Both of these stories are divided up into two chapters each, and they share many things in common with each other. In fact, Daniel Block mentions 9 such commonalities, but one that I find most significant is his final one:
Both accounts are punctuated by variations of the refrain “in those days Israel had no king” (17:6; 18:1; 19:1; 21:25). In the first the formula is inserted at critical junctures in the narrative and functions as an episode marker, in the second the formula frames the entire narrative, appearing at the beginning and the end. Twice, once in each section, the formula is augmented with, “everyone did as he saw fit” (17:6; 21:25).
Up until this point God has raised up Judges who saved Israel from her slavery to other nations. The cycle of sin and judgment and delivery has been a downward spiral with each Judge being less and less moral/upright in their behavior and leadership.
By the time we reach chapter 17 (which is not necessarily after Samson, but probably meant to coincide with the times of his judging Israel) the nation has hit rock bottom. They are pretty much fully “Canaanized” and have become more like the people of the land than the men and women God wanted them to be. This is almost surely a result of their failure to expel the native Canaanites from their home turf.
Commenting on this, Tom Schreiner explains the reason for needing to cleanse the land of the Canaanites:
The call to utterly destroy the peoples in Canaan is a shock to modern sensibilities, but despite the attempt of some scholars to say otherwise, it is quite clear that Israel believed that these were instructions from Yahweh Himself. The failure to carry out such instructions would imperil the fundamental tenet of Israel’s faith: Yahweh’s Lordship. Israel must cleanse the land from evil, for Canaan is to be a new Eden, a new garden of the Lord, free from evil.
By not expelling God’s enemies from the land, the Israelites have fallen under their influence and are no longer following the laws of Moses.
So here we are, so far from where Moses and Joshua had come both spiritually and physically. The people are finally in the land, but far from being a light to the nations, they are hardly discernable from the people who originally inhabited the land.
Lastly, one of the things we ought to notice (that a few commentators brought up) is that there are two tribes in the spotlight here from 17-21: Dan and Benjamin. Dan would one day lead the northern kingdom and Benjamin the southern. Both were tribes with settlements that were in the heart of Canaan. The significance of these things is that we’re seeing here in chapter 17 an example of the private/personal apostasy of one man’s home, and then later in 18 we see it with Dan. But its tempting to think “well I wonder if these are isolated instances…” The author, I think, purposefully uses these examples (sic Dan/Benjamin) to show us the depth and thoroughness of the apostasy of the nation as a whole. These are kitchen table issues (as we say in politics). They range in scope and scale from the least to the greatest and the reach of this kind of lifestyle is vast. We cannot leave these final chapters without understanding how far men will flee from God given their own devices:10 as it is written: “None is righteous, no, not one; 11 no one understands; no one seeks for God. 12 All have turned aside; together they have become worthless; no one does good, not even one.” 13 “Their throat is an open grave; they use their tongues to deceive.” “The venom of asps is under their lips.” 14 “Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness.” 15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood; 16 in their paths are ruin and misery, 17 and the way of peace they have not known.” 18 “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” (Romans 3:10-18)
17:1-6 There was a man of the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Micah. 2 And he said to his mother, “The 1,100 pieces of silver that were taken from you, about which you uttered a curse, and also spoke it in my ears, behold, the silver is with me; I took it.” And his mother said, “Blessed be my son by the Lord.” 3 And he restored the 1,100 pieces of silver to his mother. And his mother said, “I dedicate the silver to the Lord from my hand for my son, to make a carved image and a metal image. Now therefore I will restore it to you.” 4 So when he restored the money to his mother, his mother took 200 pieces of silver and gave it to the silversmith, who made it into a carved image and a metal image. And it was in the house of Micah. 5 And the man Micah had a shrine, and he made an ephod and household gods, and ordained one of his sons, who became his priest. 6 In those days there was no king in Israel. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes.
Verse 6 helps us explain the bizarre story that precedes it, and the equally bizarre story that continues after it. This man, who appears to have been a thief and one who disrespected his parents (there goes two of the 10 commandments right there), has the gall to make household idols and then appoint one of his sons to be a priest with an ephod and all the trappings (almost) of a feaux levitical ministry (there goes another one of the commandments).
First I want to offer a note of explanation about the curse and the blessing of Micah’s mother. There’s a good chance that the curse itself was enough to motivate Micah to return the silver, and the reason for this is that at the time a “curse” was seen as something that was alive and active – like a hidden warrior who could strike at any moment without you knowing it. The blessing was thought of as the only way to undue the curse. So we ought not to think of Micah’s mother as so elated at her son that she sought to bless him (though perhaps she was), but rather that this is the sort of stock response to undue the cursing she had uttered previously.
Now, secondly, note how syncretistic the situation is here. This man Micah has made idols out of silver, which is clearly a pagan practice in violation of the law of God, yet he has also made an ephod and appointed one of his sons to be a sort of priest for the idols. He’s doing all this in his own home, which is clearly a violation of how God wanted to be worshiped. Much of the books of Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy focus on the fact that God will be worshiped as He wants and where He wants. But Micah is either showing significant ignorance, or rash arrogance.
So when we read in verse six that everyone was doing what was right in his own eyes, it begins to make sense – especially in light of the fact that “there was no king” at the time. Not only was there no physical ruler that united all the tribes under one lawful banner, but the people who occupied the land of Canaan no longer regarded the Lord as their King.
To this end, I thought it right to quote Baptist Scholar Peter Gentry who said the following while remarking on the nature of the Davidic Covenant and the order of God’s bringing the Ark into Jerusalem prior to making the everlasting covenant with David:
The return of the ark in 2 Samuel 6 indicates that Yahweh is returning to live in the midst of his people as king. The fact that 2 Samuel 6 precedes 7 shows that only when the kingship of Yahweh among his people is firmly established can the issue of kingship in Israel be discussed. A sanctuary for the Lord comes before the monarchy
At this point in Israel, everyone is doing what they think is right. They are following what they believe to be the right way to live their lives. However, those guidelines are all subjective to however each man feels or thinks (as Dale R. Davis said, the entire law code seems subject to each man’s “glands”!).
17:7-13 Now there was a young man of Bethlehem in Judah, of the family of Judah, who was a Levite, and he sojourned there. 8 And the man departed from the town of Bethlehem in Judah to sojourn where he could find a place. And as he journeyed, he came to the hill country of Ephraim to the house of Micah. 9 And Micah said to him, “Where do you come from?” And he said to him, “I am a Levite of Bethlehem in Judah, and I am going to sojourn where I may find a place.” 10 And Micah said to him, “Stay with me, and be to me a father and a priest, and I will give you ten pieces of silver a year and a suit of clothes and your living.” And the Levite went in. 11 And the Levite was content to dwell with the man, and the young man became to him like one of his sons. 12 And Micah ordained the Levite, and the young man became his priest, and was in the house of Micah. 13 Then Micah said, “Now I know that the Lord will prosper me, because I have a Levite as priest.”
We don’t know what the name of the “young man” was in verses 8-13, but he was a Levite, and he seems to have been on a journey when he came to Micah’s house. We don’t know why or where he was going, but once he comes up on the house of Micah his entire life changes.
Block hilariously describes this young Levite as he’s dealing with the fact that we really don’t know a lot about him:
He is a “laid back” professional minister following the path of least resistance and waiting for an opportunity to open up. And he just happens to arrive at the house of Micah in the hill country of Ephraim. But what a stroke of luck this turns out to be, for both him and Micah!
Micah, who we’ve seen is a syncretistic idolatrous sinner, sees this man, this Levite, as from God. Why? Because to date he has been making due with one of his sons as priest, but no longer. Now he can have the real deal – a Levite!
We know that there’s a lot more to being a Levitical priest than simply being a descendent of Levi – there are ceremonial cleansing, and learning and all manner of rules that one must go through. But not so here, Micah doesn’t care about all that. And why should he? In his lifetime, and in the generations that have come before him, I’m betting he never saw the priesthood properly modeled, not only that, but a true encounter with God hadn’t happened in quite some time.
When verse six says that everyone did what was right in their own eyes, it reminds us that there was no fear nor any love for God in the eyes of Israelites.
What this means is that men like Micah would have been more superstitious than religious. Micah thinks that simply having a Levite as his own personal idol-priest will make him to “prosper” (as Block says, “the Levite is nothing more than a good luck charm”)!
We get a chuckle at this because is sounds absurd, but we see the same thing in our churches today. In fact, I was just reading Matt Chandler’s book ‘The Explicit Gospel’ and he talks about how in Texas where he is a pastor, there are record church attendees. It’s a way of life to go to church on Sunday morning. Having spiritual transformation, obedience and love for God are not necessarily part of the equation. It’s motivated partly by a way of life, partly based on some superstition (enabled by the prosperity gospel preachers), and partly on feel-good self-help centered gathering that give attendees a helpful trinket of useful to-dos for the week ahead.
So as ridiculous as Micah’s situation looks to us, let’s not forget that many of us have grown up in churches, or know those who still go to churches, that don’t preach the full gospel of Jesus Christ. Ignorance of the Word breeds superstition, prosperity gospel, and all manner of evil.
18:1 In those days there was no king in Israel. And in those days the tribe of the people of Dan was seeking for itself an inheritance to dwell in, for until then no inheritance among the tribes of Israel had fallen to them.
The more clear way of putting this is that there was no inheritance “taken”, perhaps. They were given an inheritance (as we read of in Joshua 19:40-48) but they were beaten back by the Amorites and could not repel them – see chapter 1.
So instead of going before God and asking for help, they have basically been stuck in these two cities of Zorah and Eshtaol (likely their basecamps from which they launch their initial Canaanite expedition) for several generations, having failed to take the land the Lord gave them.
We might note that this entire chapter is somewhat of a parody of the earlier conquest accounts. As Block says, “this chapter is deliberately composed as a parody on the earlier spy mission traditions. Nothing in this chapter is normal; people’s values and behavior are all topsy-turvy.”
18:2-6 So the people of Dan sent five able men from the whole number of their tribe, from Zorah and from Eshtaol, to spy out the land and to explore it. And they said to them, “Go and explore the land.” And they came to the hill country of Ephraim, to the house of Micah, and lodged there. 3 When they were by the house of Micah, they recognized the voice of the young Levite. And they turned aside and said to him, “Who brought you here? What are you doing in this place? What is your business here?” 4 And he said to them, “This is how Micah dealt with me: he has hired me, and I have become his priest.” 5 And they said to him, “Inquire of God, please, that we may know whether the journey on which we are setting out will succeed.” 6 And the priest said to them, “Go in peace. The journey on which you go is under the eye of the Lord.”
So like in former generations, the Danites send out “spies” to scout out the land. The “able men” as the ESV translates it, could also be “noble men” or “noble/mighty warrior” to which Bock comically states, “the present designation would have suited Joshua and Caleb, the two trustworthy members of the original team of twelve Israelite scouts (Num. 14:5-10), but here it is ironic. The Danites may be heroic figures physically and militarily, but they are spiritual pygmies.” Ha!
It is interesting that these Danites recognize the voice of the Levite, and though we don’t know how (the author doesn’t explain it) they recognize his voice, they begin to immediately interrogate him. Interestingly, his responses are reflective of his totally self-serving agenda. He talks about how good Micah has been to him (vs.4) and how Micah has paid him good money to be there (vs.4).
The next thing that happens here is that the Danites seem thrilled to have run across someone who can tell them their fortune – what luck! As Block says, “Just as Micah’s cult has lacked credibility and authority until the Levite arrived, so the mission of these scouts lacks authority without an oracular authentication from the deity.” But now they have a genuine Levite before them – heck, he’s even got an Ephod!
It’s just such an odd situation – it’s as if you’re watching a Monty Python movie or something. I can picture these guys getting made fun of so badly. Everything is so whacko…
Then, to add to the oddities, the response of the Levite is pretty much instantaneous…its almost like he just glibly answered, “Ya, looks like you’re blessed…move along.” Did he even bother to consult with God? Who even knows!? In fact, its not as if he answers them clearly that God will bless the mission! But it doesn’t seem to bother the Danites – they take it the way they want to take it and the Levite sends them on their way…and like the dolts that they are, they proceed in the utmost happiness and tranquility of mind.
18:7-10 Then the five men departed and came to Laish and saw the people who were there, how they lived in security, after the manner of the Sidonians, quiet and unsuspecting, lacking nothing that is in the earth and possessing wealth, and how they were far from the Sidonians and had no dealings with anyone. 8 And when they came to their brothers at Zorah and Eshtaol, their brothers said to them, “What do you report?” 9 They said, “Arise, and let us go up against them, for we have seen the land, and behold, it is very good. And will you do nothing? Do not be slow to go, to enter in and possess the land. 10 As soon as you go, you will come to an unsuspecting people. The land is spacious, for God has given it into your hands, a place where there is no lack of anything that is in the earth.”
Here are more parallels between the original mission to spy out the land of Canaan, and this comical less-than-holy mission of the Danites. They spy things out, they like what they see, they come back, they report on the situation, and the response seems favorable. They have scouted a land that is safe, has natural defenses of mountains and naturally occurring ramparts to safeguard the city (see Block), and is far from the Amorites and the Sidonians who wouldn’t want to bother with anything inland anyway. They have plentiful resources, and they live a sort of idyllic life – a life that the Danites see themselves enjoying soon!
The scouts are so excited, that they accuse their fellow brothers of stalling and even through in that the land has been given to them by Yahweh – no doubt encouraged by their encounter with the fake priest.
18:11-14 So 600 men of the tribe of Dan, armed with weapons of war, set out from Zorah and Eshtaol, 12 and went up and encamped at Kiriath-jearim in Judah. On this account that place is called Mahaneh-dan to this day; behold, it is west of Kiriath-jearim. 13 And they passed on from there to the hill country of Ephraim, and came to the house of Micah.
14 Then the five men who had gone to scout out the country of Laish said to their brothers, “Do you know that in these houses there are an ephod, household gods, a carved image, and a metal image? Now therefore consider what you will do.”
One of the interesting things that we find in verse 11 is that there’s only 600 men that decide to go with the 5 who spied out the land. It seems like a small amount given the fact that the whole tribe of Dan had commissioned them. This is reflected in the fact also that in verse 11 the author uses the word “clan” instead of tribe (even though the ESV uses the same word here, the Hebrew is more limited). So I think that the sense of the text is that many people from the tribe didn’t decide to go – and as Block notes, the rest of them pretty much disappeared from the pages of history.
Once the group gets the Micah’s house, they are definitely going to stop and check in with their lucky Levite. After all, he offered great advice the first time, so why not stop again – heck, why not stop and offer the man a better job? After all, he would probably take it…
18:15 And they turned aside there and came to the house of the young Levite, at the home of Micah, and asked him about his welfare. 16 Now the 600 men of the Danites, armed with their weapons of war, stood by the entrance of the gate. 17 And the five men who had gone to scout out the land went up and entered and took the carved image, the ephod, the household gods, and the metal image, while the priest stood by the entrance of the gate with the 600 men armed with weapons of war. 18 And when these went into Micah’s house and took the carved image, the ephod, the household gods, and the metal image, the priest said to them, “What are you doing?” 19 And they said to him, “Keep quiet; put your hand on your mouth and come with us and be to us a father and a priest. Is it better for you to be priest to the house of one man, or to be priest to a tribe and clan in Israel?”
18:20 And the priest’s heart was glad. He took the ephod and the household gods and the carved image and went along with the people.
I think its fairly obvious that “the priest’s heart was glad” signals the ambition of this Levite. He thinks mostly about himself first, and doesn’t seem to give a whit about loyalty to Micah – much less about the blatant apostasy he’s been committing.
This reminds me of the simony that marked the church in the medieval ages. Becoming a church minister became a normal career to consider like that of a farmer or dairyman, rather than a calling from the Lord.
Lastly, the whole situation here is just odd, as I’ve mentioned before. The household shrine is now stolen from Micah, who ironically had stolen his mom’s silver which was then used to pay for this shrine by his mom in the first place…not only this, but they have the arrogance to think that wherever they setup shop the Lord will be with them. “We can plop down a shrine anywhere and be all set!”
18:21 So they turned and departed, putting the little ones and the livestock and the goods in front of them. 22 When they had gone a distance from the home of Micah, the men who were in the houses near Micah’s house were called out, and they overtook the people of Dan. 23 And they shouted to the people of Dan, who turned around and said to Micah, “What is the matter with you, that you come with such a company?” 24 And he said, “You take my gods that I made and the priest, and go away, and what have I left? How then do you ask me, ‘What is the matter with you?’” 25 And the people of Dan said to him, “Do not let your voice be heard among us, lest angry fellows fall upon you, and you lose your life with the lives of your household.” 26 Then the people of Dan went their way. And when Micah saw that they were too strong for him, he turned and went back to his home.
If ever you wondered about whether the Danites might have been righteous men, this passage should stop your wondering. They have stolen what was not theirs, and subsequently stolen into the night.
In his anger and frustration, Micah chases after the band of miscreants and upon catching up to them tries to stop them from stealing all that he has. You would think, at this point in the story that the Levite might interject himself – that perhaps he would feel a sense of remorse for what he had done. But that isn’t the case. Instead, he keeps silent. He has made his bed and will lie in it.
When Micah realizes that to argue further with the men would result in his termination (“you lose your life and the lives of your household”), he desists and returns home.
Is this the way righteous men act? Is this the way the promised land was taken? Is this the way those who fear God and serve Him behave? With no consideration for others…this is yet another indication of the self-centered idolatry that permeated all of Israel from the least to the greatest, each man followed in his path according to his own ideas and counsel.
Today there are many who call themselves Christians – even claiming to be part of the evangelical church. But they are nothing short of Danite robbers. They have no honor, nor do they live according to the word of the Lord. They are pretenders who are self-centered glory seekers. They are, in the end, mercenaries. They are mercenaries because they serve themselves and not God.
18:27 But the people of Dan took what Micah had made, and the priest who belonged to him, and they came to Laish, to a people quiet and unsuspecting, and struck them with the edge of the sword and burned the city with fire. 28 And there was no deliverer because it was far from Sidon, and they had no dealings with anyone. It was in the valley that belongs to Beth-rehob. Then they rebuilt the city and lived in it. 29 And they named the city Dan, after the name of Dan their ancestor, who was born to Israel; but the name of the city was Laish at the first. 30 And the people of Dan set up the carved image for themselves, and Jonathan the son of Gershom, son of Moses, and his sons were priests to the tribe of the Danites until the day of the captivity of the land. 31 So they set up Micah’s carved image that he made, as long as the house of God was at Shiloh.
Laish means “lion” but the Danites named it after Dan, their ancestor, one of the sons of Jacob (Israel).
It is not until verse 30 of this final chapter in the two-chapter story that we really understand the full weight and depth of the Canaanization of the land. And this is because we finally learn in verse 30 that the Levite who has whored himself out to idols and to the highest bidder is a direct descendent of Moses himself. His is the son of Gershom (“son” in this case likely means “descendent” but if it does not, then there is good reason to believe this story took place earlier in the Judges narrative than later).
The intent of the story is to leave you feeling nauseous. You want to throw up because if you’ve been reading the accounts of Scripture up until this point and have any idea as the manifold destiny of this people you can’t help but feel like they have unwittingly charged forward to their lowest point since slavery in Egypt. Instead of slavery to Pharaoh they are slaves to idols. They have broken free from service to God and have whored after other gods who are not Gods at all. They are foolish, arrogant and headed for ruin.
So might you and I be had it not been had it not been for the grace of God. You and I are like these Danites. We spy out land that isn’t given to us. We are always looking for greener pastures – never content to conquer what has been given until our hands by the Lord. We steal, pilfer, and snub our noses at God and rebel against all that He has intended us to be. If Christ hadn’t rescued us from ourselves we would be lost. Forgotten in the pages of history. Missing in some dungeon in Hell’s dark cavernous landscape never to be heard from again except by those who share our fate.
Praise God that He rescued us.